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Table 6 Effect of essential oils on intestinal morphology, antioxidant capacity, and cytokine levels in weanling pigs

From: Alternatives to antibiotics as growth promoters for use in swine production: a review

Items Control Antibiotic1 Essential oil SEM
Villus height, μm 466 509 535 24
Crypt depth, μm 164 156 162 8
Villus height:crypt depth 2.96a 3.41b 3.38b 0.09
Total antioxidant capacity, U/mL 10.46a 11.97ab 12.37b 0.52
Interleukin-6, ng/L 44.21a 40.39a 27.40b 2.76
Tumor necrosis factor-α, ng/L 208a 237ab 260b 13
  1. Li et al. [55].
  2. 1Chlortetracycline, colistin sulfate and kitasamycin.
  3. a,bWithin row, means followed by same or no letter do not differ (P>0.05).