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Table 6 Effect of mangosteen peel supplementation on rumen volatile fatty acid production in ruminants using in vitro and in vivo studies

From: Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics

Substrate Level Species TVFA C2 C3 C4 C2/C3 References
In vitro         
  MP 200 mg Steer + + + [52]
In vivo         
  MP 100 g/hd/d Beef cattle + [52]
  MP 200 g/hd/d Dairy cows + + + [53]
  MP 100 g/hd/d Native cattle + + [51]
  MP 30 g/kg Buffalo + + [54]
  MPP 200 g/hd/d Beef cattle + + [22]
  MPP 300 g/hd/d Dairy cow + + [20]
Combination         
  CO + MP 50 + 30 g/kg Buffalo + [54]
  MP + GP 9 + 1% Beef cattle + + + [22]
  MP + GP pellet 200 g/hd/d Beef cattle + + [22]
  1. Abbreviations: GP garlic powder, MP mangosteen peel powder, MPP mangosteen peel pellet, CO coconut oil, + increased, ─ decreased.